URINARY TRACT INFECTION

Urinary Tract Infection Treatment in Jumeirah, Dubai

Overview

  • Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a common and important clinical problem in childhood. Upper urinary tract infections in kids (ie, acute pyelonephritis) may lead to renal scarring, hypertension, and end-stage renal dysfunction. Although children with pyelonephritis tend to present with fever, it can be difficult on clinical grounds to distinguish cystitis from pyelonephritis, particularly in young children (those younger than two years).

 

Causes of UTI

  • Escherichia coli is the most common bacterial cause of UTI; it accounts for approximately 85 percent of UTI in children. Other gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Klebsiella Proteus Enterobacter , and Citrobacter . Gram-positive bacterial pathogens include Staphylococcus saprophyticus Enterococcus , and, rarely, Staphylococcus aureus
  1. coli, is normally found in stool ,it can move from the anus to the urethra and into the bladder (and sometimes up into the kidney) causing infection.

Risk factors — Some children have a higher chance of developing a UTI. The following are some risk factors for UTI:

  • Age — The prevalence of UTI is highest in boys younger than one year and girls younger than four years
  • Lack of circumcision
  • Female infants — Female infants have a two- to fourfold higher prevalence of UTI than male infants . This has been presumed to be the result of the shorter female urethra
  • Genetic factors — First-degree relatives of children with UTI are more likely to have UTI than individuals without such a history
  • Urinary obstruction — Children with obstructive urologic abnormalities are at increased risk of developing UTI
  • Bowel and bladder dysfunction
  • Vesicoureteral reflux — Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the retrograde passage of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract. It is the most common urologic anomaly in children. Children with VUR are at increased risk for recurrent UTI
  • Bladder catheterization — The risk of UTI increases with increasing duration of bladder catheterization

 

Symptoms of UTI

Urinary tract infections (UTI) may present with nonspecific symptoms and signs, particularly in infants and young children.

a)Younger children

  • History of UTI
  • Temperature >40ºC
  • Suprapubic tenderness
  • Lack of circumcision

b)Older children

  • Abdominal
  • Back pain
  • Dysuria, frequency, or both
  • New-onset urinary incontinence

 

Urinary Tract Infection Treatment

The goals of treatment for urinary tract infections (UTI) include

  • Elimination of infection and prevention of urosepsis
  • Prevention of recurrence and long-term complications including hypertension, renal scarring, and impaired renal growth and function
  • Relief of acute symptoms (eg, fever, dysuria, frequency)

Acute management of UTI in children consists of antimicrobial therapy to treat the acute infection and evaluation for possible predisposing factors (eg, urologic abnormalities).

Usual indications for hospitalization and/or parenteral therapy include

  • Age <2 months
  • Clinical urosepsis (eg, toxic appearance, hypotension, poor capillary refill)
  • Immunocompromised patient
  • Vomiting or inability to tolerate oral medication
  • Lack of adequate outpatient follow-up (eg, no telephone, live far from hospital, etc)
  • Failure to respond to outpatient therapy
  • Empiric therapy — Early and aggressive antibiotic therapy (eg, within 72 hours of presentation) is necessary to prevent renal damage. Delayed therapy has been associated with increased severity of infection and greater likelihood of renal damage

Consult the doctors at SHAMMA Clinic to effectively diagnose and treat Urinary Tract Infection for children. Book an appointment with our pediatrician today.

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